Chufa (Cyperus esculentus var. sativus) was one of humanity’s earliest foods, originating in Egypt and spreading throughout southern Europe and the middle east. Chufa is also commonly known as tiger nut. It is a sedge that forms clusters of small propagative tubers. The tubers are small, but numerous and they are delicious with a sort of almond/coconut flavor. It is blended into water to create the popular Spanish drink horchata, a sort of nut milk. The tubers are delicious soaked in water and eaten raw, cooked, or ground into flour and used for baking.
Most people are more familiar with chufa’s undomesticated ancestor, yellow nutsedge, which is a nearly ubiquitous weed of the temperate world. Yellow nutsedge has become a problem in many places, as it is able to thrive in depleted soils, even in the presence of high concentrations of herbicides. It is a signature noxious weed of abused soils. Happily, domesticated Chufa, a separate botanical variety or possibly even a different species, depending on what reference you choose, is much less invasive. It rarely sets seed and its tubers are concentrated under the plant, making it less spreading.
Chufa has an uncertain legal status in Washington. As a consequence, we grow it, but don’t sell it in WA. The wild species, yellow nutsedge, is a class B noxious weed here. The information sheet provided by the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board says of chufa: “Yellow nutsedge is closely related to chufa; some taxonomists treat them as the same species (Mulligan and Junkins 1976).” That appears to except chufa from their ruling, but while I’m willing to grow it myself, I’m don’t want to sell it while it falls under a bit of a gray area. Hopefully chufa’s legal status in Washington will be clarified at some point. It is an extremely useful crop and ought to be more widely grown here. If you live in a state other than Washington, check to make sure that you are not violating local regulations by growing chufa.