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Solanum juzepczukii

Description

Solanum juzepczukii distribution map
Solanum juzepczukii distribution map

S. juzepczukii (juzepczukii, in honor of Russian botanist Sergei Vasilievich Juzepczuk) is perhaps better included among the cultivated species than the wild, but as a wild species hybrid, the dividing line isn’t entirely clear.  This species is treated more like a wild species in breeding programs.

This species is cultivated primarily in the highest elevations of the Andes in Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina, where S. tuberosum ssp. andigenum will not survive due to frost.  Plants grow about 12 to 16 inches tall, although some take a more wild-type rosette form.  They are similar in form to domesticated diploids, although with more delicate foliage.  Stolons of some varieties are rather long, as much as 18 inches, although most are more like domesticated potatoes.  Tubers are similar in size and form to stenotomum type andigena varieties.  Most varieties have blue skin and some have blue flesh, less commonly white skin and yellow flesh.  Flowers usually blue.  S. juzepczukii is high in glycoalkaloids and is only consumed after processing into chuno.

Relationships Between Andean Domesticated Potatoes
Relationships Between Andean Domesticated Potatoes

The origin of S. juzepczukii is believed to be as a hybrid between S. acaule and diploid S. tuberosum ssp. andigenum (S. stenotomum).  S. acaule is tetraploid but 2EBN, while the stenotomum type diploid parent would have been diploid and 2EBN.  They are compatible because they have the same EBN, but the cross of a tetraploid and a diploid results in triploid progeny.  Like most triploids, S. juzepczukii is effectively sterile, although it is able to cross to species with higher ploidies.  So, for example, while S. juzepczukii does not self-pollinate or cross with other varieties, it can be crossed to tetraploid S. tuberosum ssp. andigenumI have been surprised to see a few berries form on most of the plants that we have grown here.

S. juzepczukii has been “artificially” synthesized by crossing the putative parent species.  I’m not sure why this hasn’t been done more often.  It is much easier than crossing S. juzepczukii to domesticated potatoes.

Resistances

The varieties that we have grown here had excellent frost resistance, surviving undamaged frosts that killed 99% of domesticated potatoes.

Condition Type Level of Resistance Source
Frost    Somewhat resistant  Machida-Hirano 2015
Potato Virus X (PVX)    Somewhat resistant  Machida-Hirano 2015

Glykoalkaloid content

Osman (1978) found that total glycoalkaloids ranged from 11.7 to 46.8mg/kg, so this species straddles the generally accepted safety limit of 20mg/kg.  Some varieties are edible fresh, while others must be processed to reduce glycoalkaloid content.

The accessions available in the USA are mostly bitter, although not strongly.

Images

Aerial plant of the potato species Solanum juzepczukii
Solanum juzepczukii plant
Aerial plant of the potato species Solanum juzepczukii
Solanum juzepczukii plant
Aerial plant of the potato species Solanum juzepczukii
Solanum juzepczukii plant
Flower of the potato species Solanum juzepczukii
Solanum juzepczukii flower
Tubers of the USDA potato accession PI 599286
USDA PI 599286
Potato tubers of USDA PI 599286
USDA PI 599286
Tubers of the USDA potato accession PI 595441
USDA PI 595441
Potato tubers of USDA PI 595441
USDA PI 595441
Tubers of the USDA potato accession PI 599259
USDA PI 599259
Potato tubers of USDA PI 599259
USDA PI 599259
Tubers of the USDA potato accession PI 595438
USDA PI 595438
Potato tubers of USDA PI 595438
USDA PI 595438

Cultivation

I have found growing considerations for S. juzpeczukii to be essentially the same as those for domesticated diploids.  All varieties appear to be short day tuberizers.

Breeding

Crosses with S. tuberosum

Crossing S. juzepczukii to S. tuberosum ssp. andigenum produces tetraploids (Ochoa 1990).

Female Male Berry Set
Seed Set Germ Ploidy Source
             

Crosses with other species

Female Male Berry Set
Seed Set Germ Ploidy Source
             

References

Solanum juzepczukii at Solanaceae Source

Solanum juzepczukii at GRIN Taxonomy