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Solanum guerreroense

Common Name(s)  
Solanum guerreroense plant
Solanum guerreroense plant
Codegrr
Synonyms 
CladeMixed
SeriesDemissa
PloidyHexaploid (6x)
EBN4
Tuberization Photoperiod
Short day
Self-compatibleYes
Genome
AAAAAA
Cytoplasm TypeD (Hosaka 2014), W/α (Gavrilenko 2017)
Citation
Correll: Agric. Monogr. U.S.D.A. 11: 65, figs. 43, 44. 1952.

Description

Solanum guerreroense distribution map
Solanum guerreroense distribution map

Solanum guerreroense (guerreroense meaning “from Guerrero”) is a species of very limited distribution in Guerrero, Mexico, where it grows in conifer and oak forests.  It is only known from a single collection and expeditions since have failed to locate any plants (Spooner 2004).  It may be synonymous with S. iopetalum (Marks 1965), although the plants that I have grown of each species do not look similar.  Plants are low growing and can reach about nine inches tall.  Violet flowers (although I have seen white with only a hint of purple).  Tubers to about two inches, russet to purplish (Correll 1962).  Berries are described in several sources as being conical, but I have only seen round berries.

Morphologically, this plant fits with a number of geographically separate rosette forming species, including South American species like S. acaule and S. albicans and North American species like S. demissum.

Watanabe (1994b) found that this species has disomic chromosome segregation, in common with most of the North American polyploid species.

1400 seeds per gram.

Resistances

Carlson-Nilsson (2010) found that the foliage of this species was very resistant to late blight, but the tubers only moderately resistant.

Zoteyeva (2014) found that this species carries the R3 late blight resistance gene, but also displays hypersensitive resistance when this gene is not present, indicating the presence of additional resistance factors.

Luthra (2007) found that this species is moderately resistant to frost damage, equal to the least frost resistant accessions of S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum.

Varieties derived from the breeding line PALB03016-3, which includes S. guerreroense genetics, have shown resistance to zebra chip (Rondon 2012).  This probably indicates that this species carries resistance to the putative causal organism Liberibacter solanacearum.

ConditionType
Level of ResistanceSource
AphidsInvertebrateSomewhat ResistantRadcliffe 1981
Bacterial Soft Rot / BlacklegBacteriumSomewhat ResistantLojkowska 1989
Late BlightFungusResistantBlack 1957, Douches 2001, Gavrilenko 2017
Potato Cyst NematodeInvertebrateNot ResistantCastelli 2003
Potato Leafroll VirusVirusNot ResistantDe Galarreta 1998
Potato Spindle Tuber ViroidVirusSomewhat ResistantSofy 2013, Machida-Hirano 2015
Potato Virus MVirusNot ResistantDe Galarreta 1998
Potato Virus SVirusNot ResistantDe Galarreta 1998
Potato Virus XVirusSomewhat ResistantTuruleva 1990, Kiru 2008
Potato Virus XVirusNot ResistantZoteyeva 2012
Potato Virus YVirusSomewhat ResistantTuruleva 1990, Gavrilenko 2017
Root Knot NematodeInvertebrateNot ResistantJanssen 1995
Verticillium WiltFungusNot ResistantGraebner 2018
Zebra ChipBacteriumResistantRondon 2012

Glykoalkaloid content

No information.

Images

Solanum guerreroense plant
Solanum guerreroense plant
Solanum guerreroense plant
Solanum guerreroense plant
Solanum guerreroense flower
Solanum guerreroense flower
Solanum guerreroense berry
Solanum guerreroense berry
Solanum guerreroense plant
Solanum guerreroense plant
Solanum guerreroense berries
Solanum guerreroense berries
Solanum guerreroense seeds
Solanum guerreroense seeds
 
    

Cultivation

I have found this species easy to germinate, taking about the same amount of time as S. tuberosum.

Plants of this species are small and low growing.  It will not compete well with taller companions or weeds that are not well controlled.  This would be an excellent plant for a high density planting in a raised bed.

I have noted a lot of size variance in ripe berries compared to other species.  Berries should be harvested frequently when they begin to soften because they lie on the ground and are vulnerable to slug and insect damage.

Hawkes (1956) reported that, although this species is self-fertile, it requires hand pollination in order to set seed.  I have not observed this to be true.  Plants grown here easily set selfed berries with no intervention.  The difference can probably be accounted for by growing conditions: I grow outdoors but most potato research takes place in greenhouses.

Towill (1983) found that seeds of this species stored for 12 years and 1 to 3 degrees C germinated at 100%.

Breeding

This species appears to be essentially cleistogamous, self-fertilizing as soon as the flowers open or possibly even earlier.  Under our conditions, every flower forms a berry.

Watanabe (1991) found that 100% (of only two plants) of varieties of this species produced 2n pollen.  On the other hand, Zlesak (2002) found that 0% of 12 plants produced 2n pollen.

Crosses with S. tuberosum

Gavrilenko (2017) was able to select male fertile varieties with a high degree of late blight resistance from a population of S. guerreroense x S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum hybrids.

FemaleMaleBerry Set
Seed SetGermPloidySource
S. guererroenseS. tuberosumLowModerate  Jackson (1999)
S. guerreroenseS. tuberosum (cv. Superb)YesYes  Carlson-Nilsson (2010)
S. guerreroenseS. tuberosum subsp. andigenumYesYes  Carlson-Nilsson (2010)
S. tuberosumS. guererroenseMinimalNone  Jackson (1999)

Crosses with other species

In crosses between the Mexican hexaploid species, Hawkes (1956) found that only the progeny of the S. guerreroense x S. iopetallum cross set seed successfully.

FemaleMaleBerry Set
Seed SetGermPloidySource
S. demissumS. guerreroenseYesYes  Hawkes (1956)
S. guerreroenseS. demissumYesYes  Hawkes (1956)
S. guerreroenseS. hougasii (as S. spectabile)YesYesHighHexaploidHawkes (1956)
S. guerreroenseS. iopetallum (as S. brachycarpum)LowLowHighHexaploidHawkes (1956)

References

Solanum guerreroense at Solanaceae Source

Solanum guerreroense at GRIN Taxonomy

Solanum guerreroense at CIP

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