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Solanum verrucosum

Common Name(s)Papa morda (Facciola 1998)
Solanum verrucosum plant
Solanum verrucosum plant
Codever
SynonymsS. macropilosum
Clade4
SeriesVerrucosa
PloidyDiploid (2x), triploid (3x), tetraploid (4x)
EBN2
Self-compatibleYes
Genome
AA
Cytoplasm TypeD, W (Hosaka 2014)

Description

Solanum verrucosum distribution map
Solanum verrucosum distribution map

Solanum verrucosum (verrucosum means warty) is a widespread species in Mexico, where it is primarily a plant of woodlands and cloud forests.  Plants about 6 to 18 inches tall.  Blue flowers.  Round berries. 

Tubers of this species are or were occasionally eaten in Mexico, according to notes from various collecting expeditions.  Correll (1962) also reports that this species was once cultivated near Geneva, Switzerland, in the hope that it would resist late blight, but eventually abandoned due to the small tuber size and late bearing.

This species is remarkable for its self-compatibility, although inbred lines do suffer from inbreeding depression as expected in diploids of this genus (Abdalla 1973). Self compatibility is rare in diploid potatoes and has only been otherwise observed in S. polyadenium and certain lines of S. chacoense that possess self-incompatibility inhibition (sli) alleles.

S. verrucosum is suspected as the progenitor of all Mexican polyploid species, based upon the presence of a mitochondrial marker (Sanetomo 2013).  It is the only North American diploid species with the A genome.

Resistances

This species can survive frosts down to 27 degrees F (-3 C) (Li 1977).  Vega (1995) found that this species is about as frost tolerant as domesticated potato.

ConditionLevel of ResistanceSource
Late blightSomewhat resistant 

Glykoalkaloid content

Images

Solanum verrucosum plant
Solanum verrucosum plant
Solanum verrucosum flower buds
Solanum verrucosum flower buds
Solanum verrucosum flower
Solanum verrucosum flower
Solanum verrucosum flower
Solanum verrucosum flower
    
    

Cultivation

Breeding

Crosses with S. tuberosum

Watanabe (1991) found that 4.1% of varieties of this species produced 2n pollen, which would be effectively tetraploid and 4EBN.

FemaleMaleBerry Set
Seed SetPloidyGermSource
S. tuberosumS. verrucosum MinimalNone  Jackson (1999)
S. verrucosumS. tuberosumNoneNone  Jackson (1999)
S. verrucosumS. tuberosum 2xModerateModerateHigh Abdalla 1973

Crosses with other species

Jackson (1999) found 4-11% 2n pollen for varieties of this species.

Abdalla (1973) observed that interspecies crosses in which S. verrucosum is used as the male parent are rarely successful.  In addition, cytoplasmic sterility renders the majority of the progeny male sterile when S. verrucosum is used as the female parent.

FemaleMaleBerry Set
Seed SetPloidyGermSource
S. verrucosumS. chacoenseHighHighLow Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosumS. chomatophilumLowModerateHigh Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosumS. infundibuliformeHighHighModerate Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosumS. raphanifoliumHighLowHigh Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosumS. berthaultii (as S. tarijense)HighModerateMinimal Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosumS. candolleanum (as S. canasense and S. multidissectum)High/ModerateLow/ModerateLow/Moderate Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosumS. kurtzianumHighHighHigh Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosumS. brevicaule (as S. leptophyes)HighLowLow Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosumS. microdontum (as S. gigantophyllum)ModerateModerateHigh Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosumS. verneiHighModerateHigh Abdalla 1973

References

Solanum verrucosum at Solanaceae Source

Solanum verrucosum at GRIN Taxonomy

 

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