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Solanum verrucosum

Common Name(s) Papa morda (Facciola 1998)
Tubers of the wild potato species Solanum verrucosum
Solanum verrucosum tubers
Code ver
Synonyms S. macropilosum
Clade 4
Series Verrucosa
Ploidy Diploid (2x), triploid (3x), tetraploid (4x)
EBN 2
Self-compatible Yes
Genome
AA
Cytoplasm Type D, W (Hosaka 2014)

Description

Solanum verrucosum distribution map
Solanum verrucosum distribution map

Solanum verrucosum (verrucosum means warty) is a widespread species in Mexico, where it is primarily a plant of woodlands and cloud forests.  Plants about 6 to 18 inches tall.  Blue flowers.  Round berries. 

Tubers of this species are or were occasionally eaten in Mexico, according to notes from various collecting expeditions.  Correll (1962) also reports that this species was once cultivated near Geneva, Switzerland, in the hope that it would resist late blight, but eventually abandoned due to the small tuber size and late bearing.

This species is remarkable for its self-compatibility, although inbred lines do suffer from inbreeding depression as expected in diploids of this genus (Abdalla 1973). Self compatibility is rare in diploid potatoes and has only been otherwise observed in S. polyadenium and certain lines of S. chacoense that possess self-incompatibility inhibition (sli) alleles.

S. verrucosum is suspected as the progenitor of all Mexican polyploid species, based upon the presence of a mitochondrial marker (Sanetomo 2013).  It is the only North American diploid species with the A genome.

Resistances

This species can survive frosts down to 27 degrees F (-3 C) (Li 1977).  Vega (1995) found that this species is about as frost tolerant as domesticated potato.

Condition Type Level of Resistance Source
Early Blight Fungus Somewhat resistant Jansky 2008
Golden nematode (G. rostochiensis) Invertebrate Not resistant Castelli 2003
Late blight Fungus Somewhat resistant  
Late Blight Fungus Somewhat resistant Bachmann-Pfabe 2019
Potato Cyst Nematode (G. pallida) Invertebrate Not resistant Bachmann-Pfabe 2019
Potato Cyst Nematode (G. pallida) Invertebrate Not resistant Castelli 2003
Potato Virus Y Virus Not resistant Cai 2011
Soft rot (P. carotovorum) Bacteria Somewhat resistant Chung 2011

Glykoalkaloid content

Images

Solanum verrucosum plant
Solanum verrucosum plant
Solanum verrucosum flower buds
Solanum verrucosum flower buds
Solanum verrucosum flower
Solanum verrucosum flower
Solanum verrucosum flower
Solanum verrucosum flower
Tubers of the wild potato species Solanum verrucosum
Solanum verrucosum tubers
     
       

Cultivation

Towill (1983) found that seeds of this species stored at 1 to 3 degrees C germinated at 100% after 27 years.

Breeding

Crosses with S. tuberosum

Watanabe (1991) found that 4.1% of varieties of this species produced 2n pollen, which would be effectively tetraploid and 4EBN.

Female Male Berry Set
Seed Set Ploidy Germ Source
S. tuberosum S. verrucosum  Minimal None     Jackson (1999)
S. verrucosum S. tuberosum None None     Jackson (1999)
S. verrucosum S. tuberosum 2x Moderate Moderate High   Abdalla 1973

Crosses with other species

Jackson (1999) found 4-11% 2n pollen for varieties of this species.

Abdalla (1973) observed that interspecies crosses in which S. verrucosum is used as the male parent are rarely successful.  In addition, cytoplasmic sterility renders the majority of the progeny male sterile when S. verrucosum is used as the female parent.

Female Male Berry Set
Seed Set Ploidy Germ Source
S. verrucosum S. chacoense High High Low   Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosum S. chomatophilum Low Moderate High   Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosum S. infundibuliforme High High Moderate   Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosum S. raphanifolium High Low High   Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosum S. berthaultii (as S. tarijense) High Moderate Minimal   Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosum S. candolleanum (as S. canasense and S. multidissectum) High/Moderate Low/Moderate Low/Moderate   Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosum S. kurtzianum High High High   Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosum S. brevicaule (as S. leptophyes) High Low Low   Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosum S. microdontum (as S. gigantophyllum) Moderate Moderate High   Abdalla 1973
S. verrucosum S. vernei High Moderate High   Abdalla 1973

References

Solanum verrucosum at Solanaceae Source

Solanum verrucosum at GRIN Taxonomy

 

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