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Solanum berthaultii

Common Name(s) Ck’ipa ch’ogue, Ita papa, Lluttu papa 
Solanum berthaultii plant
Solanum berthaultii plant
Code ber
Synonyms S. flavoviridens, S. tarijense, S. trigalense, S. x litusinum, S. x zudaniense
Clade 4
Series Tuberosa
Ploidy Diploid (2x), Triploid (3x)
EBN 2
Tuberization Photoperiod Short day
Self-compatible No
Genome
AA
Cytoplasm Type T, W (Hosaka 2009, as S. tarijense)
Citation
Hawkes: Bull. Imp. Bur. Pl. Breed. Genet., Cambridge 45, 122. 1944

Description

Solanum berthaultii distribution map
Solanum berthaultii distribution map

Solanum berthaultii (berthaultii, in honor of French potato expert Pierre Berthault) is native to central Bolivia.  It forms large plants, three feet tall or more.  The berries are green and speckled.  Tubers are round and white, reaching about an inch, perhaps 2 inches in cultivation.  Flowers blue to purple or sometimes white (Correll 1962). It grows in dry areas, primarily between 6500 and 8500 feet in elevation (2000 and 2600 m) (Ochoa 1990).

S. berthaultii is thought to be the wild ancestor of the domesticated Chilean potato (S. tuberosum, Chilotanum group) and crosses between the two, using S. berthaultii as the female parent and Andean domesticated tetraploids as the male parent have produced long day adapted progeny with characteristics similar to Chilean potatoes (Hosaka 2018, as S. tarijense).

This species has been tentatively classified as not threatened on the IUCN Red List (Cadima 2014).

Resistances

S. berthaultii is of interest to modern potato breeders because its leaves are covered in glandular hairs that can immobilize small insects.  This feature could be valuable for controlling aphid infestations and thereby reducing the transmission of viruses.  Gibson (1971) reported that 30% of aphids were completely immobilized within 24 hours of introduction onto the leaves.  The same mechanism works to deter potato leafhoppers by gumming up their mouth parts, leaving them unable to feed (Tingey 1978).  Gibson (1983) found that the leaf hairs also exude a substance that mimics the aphid alarm pheromone and causes them to avoid the plants.

S. berthaultii appears to deter the Colorado potato beetle by emitting a semiochemical (signalling chemical) that the beetles can detect (Pelletier 1999).  On S. berthaultii, CPB lay fewer eggs (Wright 1985), the larvae take longer to develop, and larval mortality is higher than for S. tuberosum (Groden 1986).

This species can survive frosts down to 27.5 degrees F (-2.5 C) (Li 1977).  Vega (1995) found that this species is less frost tolerant than domesticated potato.  Because it grows in dry environments, it may also be a useful source of drought tolerance.

In a study of early blight resistance, Jansky (2008) found that S. berthaultii (as S. tarijense) was one of the top three most resistant species tested.

Condition Type Level of Resistance Source
Aphid Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Gibson 1971, Gibson 1983, Machida-Hirano 2015
Aphid Invertebrate Not resistant to resistant Alvarez 2006
Colorado Potato Beetle Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Colorado Potato Beetle Invertebrate Resistant Pelletier 1999
Early Blight Fungus Resistant Prasad 1980
Early Blight Fungus Somewhat resistant Jansky 2008 (as S. tarijense)
Epitrix harilana rubia Invertebrate Somewhat resistant CIP 1979
Golden nematode (G. rostochiensis) Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Castelli 2003
Heterodera rostochiensis Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Rothaker 1961
Late Blight Fungus Not resistant Gonzales 2002
Late Blight Fungus Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Late Blight Fungus Not resistant Bachmann-Pfabe 2019
Liriomyza huidobrensis Invertebrate Somewhat resistant CIP 1977
Polyphagotarsonemus latus Invertebrate Somewhat resistant CIP 1977
Potato Cyst Nematode (G. pallida) Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Castelli 2003
Potato Leafhopper Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Tingey 1978
Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid Virus Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Potato Virus X Virus Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Root Knot Nematode Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Spider Mites Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Gibson 1976
Tetranichus urticae Invertebrate Somewhat resistant CIP 1977
Thrips tabaci Invertebrate Somewhat resistant CIP 1977
Wart Fungus Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015

Glykoalkaloid content

Tingey (1982) found that accessions of S. berthaultii had different TGA compositions, with 51 of 65 accessions having primarily solamarine and the remainder primarily solanine and chaconine.  The lower limit of TGA detected was 5 mg / 100 g and the upper limit was unstated.  Gregory (1981) counted the TGA levels in S. berthaultii as undetectable.  Van Gelder (1988) found 16mg / 100 g for this species.  It seems that S. berthaultii varies quite a bit in TGA composition.  It appears that it might be edible, although I have not tested this.

Images

Solanum berthaultii plant
Solanum berthaultii plant
Solanum berthaultii plant
Solanum berthaultii plant
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii
Solanum berthaultii flower
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii
Solanum berthaultii flower
       
       

Cultivation

I have found seeds of this species easy to germinate using the standard conditions for S. tuberosum.

Towill (1983) found that seeds of this species stored at 1 to 3 degrees C germinated at 52% after 12 years and 4% after 23 years.

Bamberg (2017) found a 275% increase in seed set in this species with supplemental applications of liquid fertilizer at four and seven weeks after potting.

This species typically has five to six months of dormancy.

Breeding

Gibson (1979) found that sticky tipped leaf hairs are a single-gene, dominant trait in S. berthaultii.

Crosses with S. tuberosum

Gibson (1974) reported that four crosses of S. tuberosum x S. berthaultii produced aphid trapping hairs and that one of the plants produced substantially more of these hairs than either parent.  Gibson (1979) found that, in reciprocal crosses between S. berthaultii and diploid S. tuberosum, first generation progeny did not develop sticky leaf hairs, but some crosses made from among the progeny did, suggesting that there is an additional recessive gene at work.

Female Male Berry Set
Seed Set Germ Ploidy Source
S. berthaultii (including S. tarijense) S. tuberosum None None     Jackson (1999)
S. tuberosum 4x S. berthaultii Moderate Minimal     Jackson (1999)

Crosses with other species

Jackson (1999) found 0-13% 2n pollen for varieties of this species.

Female Male Berry Set
Seed Set Germ Ploidy Source
S. berthaultii S. brevicaule (as S. alandiae) High High     Ochoa (1990)
S. berthaultii S. brevicaule 6x (as S. oplocense) Yes None     Ochoa (1990)
S. berthaultii (as S. litusinum) S. candolleanum Yes Yes     Ochoa (1990)
S. berthaultii S. chacoense Yes Yes     Ochoa (1990)
S. berthaultii (as S. tarijense) S. infundibuliforme Moderate Low     Ochoa (1990)
S. brevicaule (as S. alandiae) S. berthaultii High High     Ochoa (1990)
S. brevicaule 6x (as S. oplocense) S. berthaultii Yes None     Ochoa (1990)
S. infundibuliforme S. berthaultii (as S. tarijense) High High     Ochoa (1990)

References

Solanum berthaultii at Solanaceae Source

Solanum berthaultii at GRIN Taxonomy

Solanum berthaultii at CIP

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