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Solanum berthaultii

Common Name(s) Ck’ipa ch’ogue, Ita papa, Lluttu papa 
Code ber
Synonyms S. flavoviridens, S. tarijense, S. trigalense, S. x litusinum, S. x zudaniense
Clade 4
Series Tuberosa
Ploidy Diploid (2x), Triploid (3x)
EBN 2
Self-compatible No
Cytoplasm Type W (Hosaka 2009, as S. tarijense)

Description

Solanum berthaultii distribution Map note

Solanum berthaultii (berthaultii, in honor of French potato expert Pierre Berthault) is native to central Bolivia.  It forms large plants, three feet tall or more.  The berries are green and speckled.  Tubers are round and white, reaching about an inch, perhaps 2 inches in cultivation.  It grows in dry areas, primarily between 6500 and 8500 feet in elevation (2000 and 2600 m) (Ochoa 1990).

S. berthaultii is of interest to modern potato breeders because its leaves are covered in glandular hairs that can immobilize small insects.  This feature could be valuable for controlling aphid infestations and thereby reducing the transmission of viruses.  Gibson (1971) reported that 30% of aphids were completely immobilized within 24 hours of introduction onto the leaves.  The same mechanism works to deter potato leafhoppers by gumming up their mouth parts, leaving them unable to feed (Tingey 1978).  Gibson (1983) found that the leaf hairs also exude a substance that mimics the aphid alarm pheromone and causes them to avoid the plants.

This species can survive frosts down to 27.5 degrees F (-2.5 C) (Li 1977).  Vega (1995) found that this species is less frost tolerant than domesticated potato.  Because it grows in dry environments, it may also be a useful source of drought tolerance.

Condition Level of Resistance Source
Early Blight Resistant Prasad 1980
Late Blight Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Wart Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Potato Virus X Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Colorado Potato Beetle Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Aphid Somewhat resistant Gibson 1971, Gibson 1983, Machida-Hirano 2015
Potato Cyst Nematode Somewhat resistant CIP 1978, Machida-Hirano 2015
Root Knot Nematode Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Spider Mites Somewhat resistant Gibson 1976
Potato Leafhopper Somewhat resistant Tingey 1978
Heterodera rostochiensis Somewhat resistant Rothaker 1961
Tetranichus urticae Somewhat resistant CIP 1977
Thrips tabaci Somewhat resistant CIP 1977
Polyphagotarsonemus latus Somewhat resistant CIP 1977
Liriomyza huidobrensis Somewhat resistant CIP 1977
Epitrix harilana rubia Somewhat resistant CIP 1979

Glykoalkaloid content

Tingey (1982) found that accessions of S. berthaultii had different TGA compositions, with 51 of 65 accessions having primarily solamarine and the remainder primarily solanine and chaconine.  The lower limit of TGA detected was 5 mg / 100 g and the upper limit was unstated.  Gregory (1981) counted the TGA levels in S. berthaultii as undetectable.  Van Gelder (1988) found 16mg / 100 g for this species.  It seems that S. berthaultii varies quite a bit in TGA composition.  It appears that it might be edible, although I have not tested this.

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Cultivation

I have found seeds of this species easy to germinate using the standard conditions for S. tuberosum.

Bamberg (2017) found a 275% increase in seed set in this species with supplemental applications of liquid fertilizer at four and seven weeks after potting.

Breeding

Gibson (1979) found that sticky tipped leaf hairs are a single-gene, dominant trait in S. berthaultii.

Crosses with S. tuberosum

Gibson (1974) reported that four crosses of S. tuberosum x S. berthaultii produced aphid trapping hairs and that one of the plants produced substantially more of these hairs than either parent.  Gibson (1979) found that, in reciprocal crosses between S. berthaultii and diploid S. tuberosum, first generation progeny did not develop sticky leaf hairs, but some crosses made from among the progeny did, suggesting that there is an additional recessive gene at work.

Female Male Berry Set Seed Set Germination Ploidy Source
S. tuberosum S. berthaultii Moderate Minimal     Jackson (1999)
S. berthaultii (including S. tarijense) S. tuberosum None None     Jackson (1999)

Crosses with other species

Jackson (1999) found 0-13% 2n pollen for varieties of this species.

Female Male Berry Set Seed Set Germination Ploidy Source
S. berthaultii S. brevicaule (as S. alandiae) High High     Ochoa (1990)
S. brevicaule (as S. alandiae) S. berthaultii High High     Ochoa (1990)
S. berthaultii 6x S. brevicaule (as S. oplocense) Yes None     Ochoa (1990)
6x S. brevicaule (as S. oplocense) S. berthaultii Yes None     Ochoa (1990)
S. berthaultii S. chacoense Yes Yes     Ochoa (1990)
S. berthaultii (as S. litusinum) S. candolleanum Yes Yes     Ochoa (1990)
S. berthaultii (as S. tarijense) S. infundibuliforme Moderate Low     Ochoa (1990)
S. infundibuliforme S. berthaultii (as S. tarijense) High High     Ochoa (1990)

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