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Solanum candolleanum

Common Name(s) Achachil ch’ogue, Monte ch’ogue
Tubers of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum tubers
Code cnd
Synonyms S. abancayense, S. abbottianum, S. achacachense,  S. amabile,  S, amayanum,  S. ambosinum,  S. ancoripae,  S. antacochense,  S. aymaraesense, S. bill-hookeri, S. bukasovii, S. calcense, S. canasense, S. catarthrum, S. chillonanum, S. coelestipetalum, S. hapalosum, S. huancavelicae, S. lechnoviczii, S. lobbianum, S. longiusculum, S. marinasense, S. mollepujroense, S. multidissectum, S. neohawkesii, S. ochoae, S. orophilum, S. ortegae, S. pampasense, S. puchupuchense, S. pumilum, S. punoense, S. sarasarae, S. sawyeri, S. saxatile, S. sicuanum, S. soukupii, S. sparsipilum, S. tapojense, S. tarapatanum, S. tenellum, S. velardei
Clade 4
Series Tuberosa
Ploidy Diploid (2x), Triploid (3x)  
EBN 2  
Tuberization Photoperiod Short day  
Self-compatible No  
Genome
AA
Cytoplasm Type M, P (Hosaka 2014)
Citation
Berthault: Ann. Sci. Agron. Franc. Etrangere, ser. 3, 6: 190. 1911.

Description

Solanum candolleanum distribution map
Solanum candolleanum distribution map

Solanum candolleanum (candolleanum, in honor of Swiss botanist Agustin Pyramus de Candolle) is primarily a Peruvian species, but also found in Bolivia.  Plants large, as much as three feet tall, although this is quite a variable species.  Stolons reach almost five feet.  Large tubers, maybe the largest of any of the wild potatoes, reaching up to about five inches long or more under cultivation.  Flowers blue to purple.  Berries round to ovoid and similar in size to domesticated potato.  Grows in cool, moist environments up to about the 13,100 foot elevation.

S. candolleanum and S. brevicaule can probably be considered the core members of the Solanum brevicaule complex, which ranges from northern Peru through Bolivia.  S. candolleanum is the dominant species in the northern part of that range and S. brevicaule is in the southern part.  Both species are highly variable, but overall similar to one another.  Both share a lot of similarities with the domesticated potato and can cross relatively easily with it, at least at the diploid level.

Resistances

This species can survive frosts down to 24 degrees F (-4.5 C) (Li 1977, as S. canasense).  Vega (1995) found that this species is more frost tolerant than domesticated potato.

Condition Type Level of Resistance Source
Aphids Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Colorado Potato Beetle Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Drought Abiotic Somewhat resistant

Machida-Hirano 2015, Watanabe 2011 (as S. chillonanum)

Frost Abiotic Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Golden nematode (G. rostochiensis) Invertebrate Resistant Castelli 2003
Late Blight Fungus Not resistant Gonzales 2002
Late Blight Fungus Somewhat resistant Bachmann-Pfabe 2019 (under various synonyms)
Potato Cyst Nematode (G. pallida) Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Castelli 2003
Potato Cyst Nematode (G. pallida) Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Bachmann-Pfabe 2019 (under various synonyms
Potato Leaf Roll Virus Virus Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015 (as S. bukasovii)
Potato Virus Y Virus Somewhat resistant Chung 2011, Machida-Hirano 2015
Potato Virus Y, C Strain Virus Resistant Takacs 1999 (as S. achacachense)
Root Knot Nematode Invertebrate Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015
Scab Bacterium Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015 (as S. bukasovii)
Soft rot (P. carotovorum) Bacteria Somewhat resistant Chung 2011 (as S. bukasovii)
Wart Fungus Somewhat resistant Machida-Hirano 2015

Glykoalkaloid content

Johns (1990) found glycoalkaloid levels ranging from mostly from 25 to 78mg/100g in four accessions of S. candolleanum (as S. bukasovii and S. canasense).  They also noted an outlier at 9mg/100g (PI 473492).  Some have levels are just above the safety limit for S. tuberosum at 20mg/100g and those are probably safe to eat in small amounts.  Some varieties may even be as safe as S. tuberosum if the 9mg/100g outlier is any indication.  The primary glycoalkaloids found were solanine and chaconine.  Van Gelder (1988) found TGA levels ranging from 70 to 92 mg / 100 g (as S. bukasovii), 32 to 36 mg / 100 g (as S. canasense), and 36 mg / 100 g (as S. multidissectum).

Images

Above ground plant of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum plant
Above ground plant of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum plant
Flowers of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flowers
Flower buds of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower buds
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Flowers of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flowers
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Berry of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berry
Berry of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berry
Berry of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berry
Berries of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berries
Berries of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berries
Berries of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berries
 
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense
Solanum candolleanum flower
 
Tubers of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum tubers
 
 

Cultivation

The USDA potato genebank has observed that some accessions of this species are dependent upon GA3 for germination (Bamberg 1999).  Bamberg (2018) found that alternating temperatures increased germination in this species.

Breeding

Crosses with S. tuberosum

Female Male Berry Set
Seed Set Germ Ploidy Source
S. candolleanum (inlcuding many synonyms) S. tuberosum 4x Minimal Minimal     Jackson (1999)
S. tuberosum 4x S. candolleanum (including many synonyms) Low Minimal     Jackson (1999)
             

Crosses with other species

Jackson (1999) found 3-12% 2n pollen for varieties of this species.

Female Male Berry Set
Seed Set Germ Ploidy Source
S. candolleanum S. acaule High High     Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanum S. berthaultii (as S. litusinum) Moderate Moderate     Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanum S. brevicaule Moderate Moderate     Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanum S. boliviense Moderate Moderate     Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanum S. infundibuliforme Moderate Moderate     Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanum S. lignicaule No? No     Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanum S. microdontum Yes? No     Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanum S. raphanifolium High High     Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanum S. stipuloideum (as S. circaefolium) No? No     Ochoa 1990
S. boliviense (as S. megistacrolobum) S. candolleanum Yes? No     Ochoa 1990

References

Solanum candolleanum at Solanaceae Source

Solanum candolleanum at GRIN Taxonomy

Solanum candolleanum at CIP

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