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Solanum candolleanum

Common Name(s)Achachil ch’ogue, Monte ch’ogue
Above ground plant of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum plant
Codecnd
SynonymsS. abancayense, S. abbottianum, S. achacachense,  S. amabile,  S, amayanum,  S. ambosinum,  S. ancoripae,  S. antacochense,  S. aymaraesense, S. bill-hookeri, S. bukasovii, S. calcense, S. canasense, S. catarthrum, S. chillonanum, S. coelestipetalum, S. hapalosum, S. huancavelicae, S. lechnoviczii, S. lobbianum, S. longiusculum, S. marinasense, S. mollepujroense, S. multidissectum, S. neohawkesii, S. ochoae, S. orophilum, S. ortegae, S. pampasense, S. puchupuchense, S. pumilum, S. punoense, S. sarasarae, S. sawyeri, S. saxatile, S. sicuanum, S. soukupii, S. sparsipilum, S. tapojense, S. tarapatanum, S. tenellum, S. velardei
Clade4
SeriesTuberosa
PloidyDiploid (2x), Triploid (3x) 
EBN2 
Tuberization PhotoperiodShort day 
Self-compatibleNo 
Genome
AA
Cytoplasm TypeM, P (Hosaka 2014)
Citation
Berthault: Ann. Sci. Agron. Franc. Etrangere, ser. 3, 6: 190. 1911.

Description

Solanum candolleanum distribution map
Solanum candolleanum distribution map

Solanum candolleanum (candolleanum, in honor of Swiss botanist Agustin Pyramus de Candolle) is primarily a Peruvian species, but also found in Bolivia.  Plants large, as much as three feet tall, although this is quite a variable species.  Stolons reach almost five feet.  Large tubers, maybe the largest of any of the wild potatoes, reaching up to about five inches long or more under cultivation.  Flowers blue to purple.  Berries round to ovoid and similar in size to domesticated potato.  Grows in cool, moist environments up to about the 13,100 foot elevation.

S. candolleanum and S. brevicaule can probably be considered the core members of the Solanum brevicaule complex, which ranges from northern Peru through Bolivia.  S. candolleanum is the dominant species in the northern part of that range and S. brevicaule is in the southern part.  Both species are highly variable, but overall similar to one another.  Both share a lot of similarities with the domesticated potato and can cross relatively easily with it, at least at the diploid level.

Resistances

This species can survive frosts down to 24 degrees F (-4.5 C) (Li 1977, as S. canasense).  Vega (1995) found that this species is more frost tolerant than domesticated potato.

ConditionTypeLevel of ResistanceSource
AphidsInvertebrateSomewhat resistantMachida-Hirano 2015
Colorado Potato BeetleInvertebrateSomewhat resistantMachida-Hirano 2015
DroughtAbioticSomewhat resistant

Machida-Hirano 2015, Watanabe 2011 (as S. chillonanum)

FrostAbioticSomewhat resistantMachida-Hirano 2015
Potato Cyst NematodeInvertebrateSomewhat resistantMachida-Hirano 2015 (as S. bukasovii)
Potato Leaf Roll VirusVirusSomewhat resistantMachida-Hirano 2015 (as S. bukasovii)
Potato Virus YVirusSomewhat resistantChung 2011, Machida-Hirano 2015
Potato Virus Y, C StrainVirusResistantTakacs 1999 (as S. achacachense)
Root Knot NematodeInvertebrateSomewhat resistantMachida-Hirano 2015
ScabBacteriumSomewhat resistantMachida-Hirano 2015 (as S. bukasovii)
WartFungusSomewhat resistantMachida-Hirano 2015

Glykoalkaloid content

Johns (1990) found glycoalkaloid levels ranging from mostly from 25 to 78mg/100g in four accessions of S. candolleanum (as S. bukasovii and S. canasense).  They also noted an outlier at 9mg/100g (PI 473492).  Some have levels are just above the safety limit for S. tuberosum at 20mg/100g and those are probably safe to eat in small amounts.  Some varieties may even be as safe as S. tuberosum if the 9mg/100g outlier is any indication.  The primary glycoalkaloids found were solanine and chaconine.  Van Gelder (1988) found TGA levels ranging from 70 to 92 mg / 100 g (as S. bukasovii), 32 to 36 mg / 100 g (as S. canasense), and 36 mg / 100 g (as S. multidissectum).

Images

Above ground plant of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum plant
Above ground plant of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum plant
Flowers of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flowers
Flower buds of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower buds
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Flowers of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flowers
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum flower
Berry of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berry
Berry of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berry
Berry of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berry
Berries of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berries
Berries of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berries
Berries of the wild potato species Solanum candolleanum
Solanum candolleanum berries
 
Flower of the wild potato species Solanum chacoense
Solanum candolleanum flower
 
 
 

Cultivation

The USDA potato genebank has observed that some accessions of this species are dependent upon GA3 for germination (Bamberg 1999).  Bamberg (2018) found that alternating temperatures increased germination in this species.

Breeding

Crosses with S. tuberosum

FemaleMaleBerry Set
Seed SetGermPloidySource
S. candolleanum (inlcuding many synonyms)S. tuberosum 4xMinimalMinimal  Jackson (1999)
S. tuberosum 4xS. candolleanum (including many synonyms)LowMinimal  Jackson (1999)
       

Crosses with other species

Jackson (1999) found 3-12% 2n pollen for varieties of this species.

FemaleMaleBerry Set
Seed SetGermPloidySource
S. candolleanumS. acauleHighHigh  Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanumS. berthaultii (as S. litusinum)ModerateModerate  Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanumS. brevicauleModerateModerate  Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanumS. bolivienseModerateModerate  Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanumS. infundibuliformeModerateModerate  Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanumS. lignicauleNo?No  Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanumS. microdontumYes?No  Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanumS. raphanifoliumHighHigh  Ochoa 1990
S. candolleanumS. stipuloideum (as S. circaefolium)No?No  Ochoa 1990
S. boliviense (as S. megistacrolobum)S. candolleanumYes?No  Ochoa 1990

References

Solanum candolleanum at Solanaceae Source

Solanum candolleanum at GRIN Taxonomy

Solanum candolleanum at CIP

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